Accelerated critical neural pathway formation is a genetic engineering medical technique used to accelerate growth of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex and thus improve the intelligence of an individual.
In 2348, Julian Bashir was taken to Adigeon Prime by his parents Richard Bashir and Amsha Bashir, where the accelerated critical neural pathway formation procedure was performed. The procedure was a great success and improved Bashir's hand-eye coordination, reflexes, vision, stamina, height and weight. As the procedure was illegal in the Federation, the Bashir family kept it a secret until it was revealed in 2373. (DS9 episode: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")