Physically they are quite similar to humans, with the exception of a pair of vertical ridges along their heads near the forehead right above both eyebrows. Despite being primitive in their technology level, their forensic methods were apparently impressive.
By 2151 the Akaali had reached a pre-industrial level of development. Sometime prior to that year, a Malurian team visited the planet and began a secret mining operation, which made the Akaali ill. The Enterprise arrived in orbit in July of 2151, and detected an antimatter reactor, which a people who did not even have indoor plumbing should not have. With the assistance of the Akaali Riann, Captain Jonathan Archer put an end to the Malurian mining activities. The Enterprise notified the Vulcan High Command in the event that the Malurians tried to return. (ENT episode: "Civilization")