An archaeology and anthropology officer, abbreviated as A and A officer, was a type of science officer assigned to Federation starships in the 23rd century, specifically an officer studying the fields of archaeology and anthropology.
In 2265, Lieutenant Ming Xiong served as the A and A officer on the Vanguard space station. Xiong felt that the appellation "archaeology and anthropology officer" was a misnomer, and that the proper name should have been "X and A", or "xenology and anthropology officer." (VAN novel: Harbinger)
Lieutenant Theresa Errgang served as an A and A officer circa 2268, and participated in the covert cultural observation of the natives of Sigma Niobe II. (TOS - Constellations short story: "As Others See Us")