Artichokes (specifically, globe artichokes, Cynara scolymus) are a type of vegetable native to Earth. This plant is served as food in Human cooking.
In 2269, Commander Spock noted that the Father Machine looked like a cross of an artichoke and a spiral staircase the size of an office building. (TOS novel: World Without End)
Nyota Uhura and Jabilo M'Benga attended a Starfleet celebration of Christmas shortly after the USS Enterprise's five-year mission ended, and one of the foods M'Benga chose from the buffet was a salad with smoked artichokes. (TOS novel: Traitor Winds)