The Bajoran species are similar in appearance to most Humanoids in terms of average height, weight as well as build. Their skin color as well as hair and eye color variations match those of Humans. The most distinctive feature among the Bajoran people are their horizontal nose ridges which is the only notable physical feature that is noted in their appearance. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens) The males also have ridges on their reproductive organs. (TTN novel: The Red King). There are limited number of Bajorans who do not have the rhinal ridges. The Dabo girl M'Pella is an example of this. (ST - Typhon Pact novel: Raise the Dawn)
Bajoran naming customs place the family name first, and the given name to follow. If a Bajoran is addressed in this manner, with the proper use of the family name, they will typically consider it an honor; Keeve Falor was pleased when Captain Jean-Luc Picard used the correct form and addressed him as "Mr. Keeve". (TNG episode: "Ensign Ro")
Bajoran history goes back 30,000 years (making it one of the oldest known civilizations) and is divided in at least four ages. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens) During their early history, the Bajora ethnic group dominated the other nations on Bajor on a cultural and economic basis. Because of this, the Bajoran people sometimes refer to themselves as the Bajora.
One of the earliest known governments that the Bajoran people had formed was the Old Bajoran Republic. During this time, the Bajorans encountered and battle the non-humanoid species known as the Vorel. During this age, the Old Bajoran Republic stretched as far as the Tarvo system. (TNG short story: "The Naked Truth") Certain manuscripts dating from the time of the Bajoran First Republic survived to the 24th century. (DS9 episode: "Explorers")
By the 22nd century, the Bajorans had established the Second Republic, which was at its height at the time. During this age, they ventured into space in their primitive solar-sailing lightships, which were capable of reaching as far as Cardassia Prime. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens) At some point in this early period, the Bajorans established several colony worlds, including B'hal Ta. (DS9 - Millennium novel: The Fall of Terok Nor)
In 2270, the USS Enterprise, under the command of Captain James T. Kirk, made first contact with Bajorans of their colony world Pillagra in the R-855 solar system after rescuing the settlement from the Ascendants, an alien race from the other side of the Bajoran wormhole. (TOS novel: Allegiance in Exile)
After the decades that followed, the Bajoran people were suffering from an unknown problem. It was at this point that the Cardassians approached their people and offered to help them which resulted in the first contact between the two species. While they initially came to help Bajor, over the next 20 years their presence gradually changed becoming oppressive. Eventually, after 20 years, the Cardassian Union officially annexed the planet and began the Occupation of Bajor. This would be a brutal period for the people of Bajor who were enslaved while their world was ravaged in order to produce the necessary resources for Cardassian society. This harsh period would see the rise of the Bajoran Resistance that began striking against the Union over the years and their tyrannical oppressors began to slowly grow weary after the wave after wave of constant attacks until they eventually decided to relinquish control of the ruined world. From the aftermath, the Bajoran Provisional Government was formed and sought aid from the Federation who established a presence at Terok Nor, now renamed Deep Space 9. While recovering, the newly freed Bajorans discovered the Celestial Temple and would attempt to recover from the horrors of their past until the start of the Dominion War. Eventually, the people would send at least one probe into the Gamma Quadrant. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens, ST website: Startrek.com)
In one alternate future reality where the Red Orbs of Jalbador were uncovered, the Bajoran people began to follow the False Prophets of the red wormhole and began the War of the Prophets. They reformed their government into the Bajoran Ascendancy and were being led by Kai Weyoun. (DS9 - Millennium novel: The War of the Prophets)
In an alternate reality visited by Lieutenant Worf in 2370, the Bajorans overthrew the Cardassian Union and became increasingly hostile towards the Federation. On stardate 47391.2 in 2370, a Bajoran warship destroyed the Argus Array as they believed that Starfleet had been using it to conduct espionage. The USS Enterprise-D was damaged during the battle and its chief engineer Geordi La Forge died as a result of his injuries. (TNG episode: "Parallels")
Bajorans are a highly religious people with their faith revolving around the dimensional entities that occupy the Celestial Temple, known a the Bajoran wormhole to others, who are known as the Prophets. The alien race were considered gods by the people of Bajor and believed that they watched over them as well as communicated to them through prophecies that were determined through comets and the eight mysterious Tears of the Prophets. Scientists would state that the Prophets were simply alien entities that resided within a wormhole, however, such a scientific approach has little affect on the bulk of Bajoran society.
This meant that Bajoran religion engulfed their entire society with even those that rejected the faith being able to quote from the Sacred Texts. In addition to this, most Bajorans believe that they possess a lifeforce known as a Pagh with some believing that those who follow the paths dictated in the Texts will possess pure pagh. In contrast, those who turn away from the Prophets and live selfish lives have their pagh become dark as well as corrupt. Its known that some Bajoran mystics are capable of sensing the pagh of a person by close contact with the person. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens)
Certain fringe groups began to develop such as the Ohalavaru who did not believe that the Prophets were not gods but in fact aliens who served as teachers. This group would be considered heretics by the majority of orthodox Bajoran believers. (DS9 novel: Unity)
Even more heretical groups consisted of the Cult of the Pah-wraiths who were considered followers of evil gods that would destroy Bajor. These followers themselves were divided in their worship between the Pah-wraiths of Jalbador and the Pah-wraiths of the Fire Caves. (DS9 - Millennium novel: ?) 
Originally, the Bajoran race were a pastoral people who lived simple farmer lives while others sought artistic pursuits from folk art to music or story telling. Such pursuits help derive personal satisfaction by such actions. The species have had little interest in the rest of the Galaxy as they focused on being contemplative as they were quite an introverted people despite 30,000 years of history. In all that time, there has been very little development within their culture, remaining almost static for centuries. The typical Bajoran simply wanted to go about their business in peace and expected the same from others. They are indifferent towards alien species, neither liking nor disliking them but remaining friendly to them - this attitude has somewhat remained despite the oppression they faced from the Cardassians.
The biggest changes within the Bajoran mind was brought through the harsh brutality the Cardassians brought about the race during the Occupation of Bajor. In order to gain freedom through any means necessary, the people of Bajor began to resort to assassinations, terrorist attacks and other similar actions in order to remove the alien influence from their world. These harsh lessons turned many Bajorans into ruthless fighters with many becoming scarred after the conflict from seeing the horrors they saw such as friends dying in battle. Others become pugnacious and chauvinistic after the Occupation with suspicion being placed on those who did not fight the Cardassian occupiers. This has also resulted in a great deal of paranoia in regards to outsiders. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens)
Their life among the Cardassians made the Bajorans see that certain members of their kind believed that one had to sacrifice their comrades in order for the rest of their people to survive. (TNG novel: Requiem)
One noted aspect of Bajoran society that has disappeared after the Occupation was the caste based system they used to subscribe to as recently as the 22nd century. These were known as D'jarras with a family's caste determining their profession in life as well as placed a restriction on their pursuits.(DS9 episode: "Accession") Under the social rules at the time, Bajorans of certain D'jarra's were forbidden from interacting with one of a lesser D'jarra. The entire system was abolished by the year 2328 as all Bajorans were required to fight off the Cardassians regardless of which caste they belonged to. (Decipher RPG module: Aliens)