Bowling is a sport of Earth orgin. The game was first developed by the ancient Egyptians, and over the centuries developed into its current form. In bowling, the object of the game is for the bowler, or player, to throw a ball down a flat surfaced lane in an attempt to knock down as many pins as possible. Points are scored for each pin knocked down, with extra points awarded if all the pins are knocked down on a particular turn. The facility where bowling is played is referred to as a bowling alley.
The game remained popular well into the 24th century. Many Federation Starfleet vessels and other installations have bowling alleys. The USS Enterprise and Deep Space 9 were both equipped with bowling alleys. (TOS episode: "The Naked Time" and Deep Space Nine set decorations)
The Romulan Commander Hiran witnessed a game of bowling, and found it intriguing as the players were hurling the balls at a distant set of sticks and not at one's opponent. Captain James T. Kirk suggested that Hiran talk to Captain Spock if he wanted to understand more about Human games. (TOS novel: Probe)