A bowling alley is a location where bowling is performed.
In the 23rd century, Constitution-class starships were equipped with a bowling alley as part of their recreational facilities. When Lieutenant Kevin Riley took control of the USS Enterprise in 2266, Riley ordered that a formal dance take place in the bowling alley. (TOS episode & novelization: The Naked Time)
The video games Asteroid Monsters, Gallery of Amazement, Necroblaster 989 and Smuggler's Treasure were 23rd century holographic games that were set up in the bowling alley of the USS Enterprise in the 2260s. (TOS novel: Crossroad)