Caldos colony was a Federation colony located on the planet Caldos II.
The founders of the colony wanted to make it a replica of Scotland and thus had all of the cornerstones from each building brought from Scotland. All of the buildings, clothes and the vegetation were intended to remind the colonists, and visitors, of Scotland.
The colony required a weather modification network in order to keep its climate stable.
As of 2370, the colony was governed by Maturin who was from an unknown species, although he and his family had spent time on Earth in Scotland. Many of the colony's inhabitants were Human and they included Felisa Howard, Doctor Beverly Crusher's grandmother. (TNG episode: "Sub Rosa")