A Cardassian lifeboat was an escape pod used by the Cardassians aboard their space stations and starships.
Terok Nor only possessed twenty-seven lifeboats as only personnel with at least the rank of Gil were allowed to be evacuated. (DS9 reference: Star Trek: Deep Space Nine Technical Manual)
In 2370, the crew of the Galor-class Swift Striker launched lifeboats after the ship was damaged by a bomb they had intended to damage Deep Space 9 with. (DS9 novel: Betrayal)
In the mirror universe, the crew of the Terok Nor abandoned the station aboard lifeboats following the Cardassian attack on it in 2377. General Miles O'Brien considered the Cardassian lifeboats to be shoddy and hoped Keiko Ishikawa had not used one to escape the station before it was destroyed. Keiko had to do so, as the lifeboat in Ops was her only way off the station. (ST - Mirror Universe novel: Rise Like Lions)