Following the destruction of Earth and other major Human colonies, the Enterprise (NX-01) led a refugee convoy of Human ships to Ceti Alpha V where a colony of just less than 6,000 was established on the surface. Upon arriving at the planet, civilian ships were dismantled to construct the buildings that would make up the colony. By the mid 2160s, the colony was firmly established with many of the buildings being clustered around a small reservoir. Despite the availability of water, vegetation in the surrounding hills tended to be scrub-like in nature.
The colony's location was an intense secret, and the Enterprise, along with two other surviving Starfleet vessels, one being the SS Intrepid, patrolled the Ceti Alpha system en guard for any potential attack by Xindi.
In 2165, Doctor Phlox left Denobula for the Ceti Alpha V colony with a new medical treatment for Jonathan Archer who was suffering memory loss due to an infection of interspatial parasites which he had received back in 2153. Dr. Phlox was tailed by a Yridian named Yerdrin Lek who had been hired by the Xindi to discover the location of the secret colony. Although Lek was apprehended while trying to hide himself in close proximity to Ceti Alpha, he had already contacted the Xindi who arrived in the system shortly thereafter and attacked the Enterprise and two other Starfleet vessals. (ENT episode: "Twilight")
It is not known what became of the colony once the Starfleet vessels protecting it had been severely damaged; however, it can be surmised that the Xindi probably attacked and destroyed the settlement from orbit.