Berengaria VII was the home of a Vulcan science outpost and Earth Starfleet's newly establised Starbase 1 still under construction. The Romulan bird-of-prey Dhivael and its compliment of attack fighters were dispatched to counqer the system and establish a beached in Coalition of Planets space.
Two squadrons of Romulan sub-warp fighters avoided the system's warp detection grid and immediately wiped out both Starbase 1 and the Vulcan science outpost located on Berengaria VII. Following that destruction, the Earth starship Discovery entered the system to investigate the outposts automated distress call, but was ambushed by the Romulan fighters in an attempt to seize the Starfleet vessel. The Romulan ships then opened fire on the Discovery with nuclear weapons, blinding its sensors, and the followup attacks severely damaged the Starfleet vessel. The crew was forced to abandon ship to survive the subsequent warp core breach. Captain Curtis sacrificed his life to launch the log buoy and get out a distress call.
The defeat of Starfleet gave the Romulans a beachhead even closer to Earth than any planets held before. It also resulted in the destruction of one of Earth's few NX-class vessels, but the surviving crew members were evacuated. (ENT - The Romulan War novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing)