The Freedom of Information Act was the name of several laws enacted by several governments through history, which allowed for the release of certain government data to the public. One of the first such laws was enacted in the United States of America in 1966.
Later, a similar law was enacted by the United Federation of Planets. It was under this legislation that all of James T. Kirk's Enterprise log entries were declassified in 2371. (TOS short story: "An Enigma Wrapped in a Puzzle", in New Worlds, New Civilizations)