The Fundamental Declarations of the Martian Colonies were important legal documents drafted on the planet Mars. The declarations were one of the foundational documents outlining Human rights. (TOS episode: "Court Martial")
Following is the Excerpt from page 80 of Star Trek Spaceflight Chronology, by Stan and Fred Goldstein:
FUNDAMENTAL DECLARATION OF THE MARTIAN COLONIES PASSED – 2062
MARTIAN COLONIES JOHN HAMMERLICK, GOVERNOR
As mankind evolved from a geo-centered to a solar-wide civilization, it’s political structure underwent a similar decentralization. A separate political forum was needed to address each planet’s unique needs, and in 2062, representatives of every inhabited region in space met on Mars and formally recognized this need in the “Fundamental Declaration”. The Earth still remained man’s ultimate governing body, but local autonomy was granted the planets over their own internal affairs. The Fundamental Declaration was subsequently extended into interstellar space and has become a major galactic precedent.
Archive Log: THE FUNDAMENTAL DECLARATION OF THE MARTIAN COLONIES
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for Planets to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected Them with their Home Planet Earth, and to assume with the Earth a separate and autonomous status, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that They should declare the causes which impel Them to the Separation.
We contend that the great distances and differing Planetary realities among Planets and the Earth have given rise to numerous inequities and misunderstandings.
We further contend that the representation afforded Planets in any Earth-centered Political Forum cannot provide a sufficient voice for our Needs and Aspirations.
We, therefore, the Representatives of all Inhabited Regions of the Solar System, met here at the Martian Colonies, do, in the Name, and by the Authority of the good People of the Regions, solemnly Publish and Declare, that these Regions are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND AUTONOMOUS.
This Declaration implies no malice nor animosity toward the Planet Earth. It recognizes the Authority of the Earth over interplanetary affairs and pledges Full Participation in the Maintenance and Security of the Solar System.
However, the FREEDOM AND AUTONOMY of these Regions must be considered and inviolable principle, which hereafter, must be honored by all peaceful Governments and will be Defended by these Regions with the full weight of their Honor, their Fortunes, and their Lives.
SIGNED at these MARTIAN COLONIES, 2062. JOHN HAMMERLICH, GOVERNOR OF THE MARTIAN COLONIES