Gault was a Human farming colony, initially settled shortly after first contact in 2063. It was populated primarily by a group called the Siberian Collective, including many individuals of Russian and Ukrainian descent. In its early years, it became an important provider of food and agricultural good for United Earth, and later for the United Federation of Planets.
As replicators became more widespread, Gault focused more on export to other non-Federation worlds, including the Klingon Empire, Yridians, the Gorn Hegemony, and the Lissepians. Among the most popular exports were Sackmanov apples, Horst pears, Ulanov spices, and wheat. (ST novel: A Singular Destiny)
The Rozhenko family lived on Gault for a time. Sergey and Helena raised two sons there, Worf (whom they had adopted) and Nikolai Rozhenko. (TNG episode: "Heart of Glory"; TNG episode: "Homeward"; TLE novel: The Art of the Impossible) In 2357, thirteen-year-old Worf accidentally killed another Gault boy, Mikel, in a collision during a soccer match. (DS9 episode: "Let He Who Is Without Sin...")
In the late 24th century, Gault obtained a modern water reclamation system, designed by the Carreon. The Deltans petitioned newly elected Federation President Nan Bacco in 2379 to be provided a similar system, leading to a long and protracted trade dispute with Carrea. (TNG novel: A Time for War, A Time for Peace; ST novel: A Singular Destiny)