The original colonists sought to create the perfect society where no one was afflicted with disease or pain and thus resorted to genetic engineering to achieve their ends. It is unclear to what extent genetic engineering was used within the colony as the colonists did not seem to exhibit superhuman abilities as demonstrated by other genetically enhanced people apart from, perhaps, a gifted level of intelligence and good health. Future generations living in the colony were genetically engineered to fulfill specific roles within their society.
Physically, the colony and its main biosphere were closed and sealed off from the planet's harsh, uninhabitable conditions. Genome colony would remain isolated from other humans and Earth colonies until 2368 when it was contacted by the USS Enterprise-D and threatened with the approach of a stellar core fragment from a neutron star. (TNG episode: "The Masterpiece Society")