It is unknown when the planet came under the control of the Terran Empire, however, it might have occurred prior to 2155 when Captain Maximilian Forrest recorded in his starlog that the ISS Enterprise (NX-01) was en route from Gorlan Station to rendez-vous with the empire's assault fleet. Gorlan Station may have been a facility located either on the planet or in orbit around it. (ENT episode: "In a Mirror, Darkly, Part I")
A century later Gorlan would feel the wrath of the empire's might when newly ascended Captain James T. Kirk of the ISS Enterprise destroyed the planet in 2264 in response to the Gorlan uprising, a rebellion against the empire. The Enterprise's weapons turned the surface into rubble and glazed glass, before cracking the planet open like and eggshell. Only a few thousand Gorlans managed to escape the destruction of their homeworld. (TOS episode: "Mirror, Mirror"; Mirror Universe short story: "The Greater Good"; Decipher RPG module: Through a Glass, Darkly)
By the time of the Klingon-Cardassian Alliance of the 24th century, the few remaining Gorlan believed that they were destined for greatness according to their Creator and that the destruction of their planet was the "plague of destruction and fire" promised upon them before they became the rulers of the galaxy. (Decipher RPG module: Through a Glass, Darkly)
It is unknown if an equivalent of Gorlan existed within the Federation universe.