As a species, the Haakonans did not seem to exhibit much interest in deep space exploration, and to find one of their ships so far from home is a surprise. (ENT - The Romulan War novel: To Brave the Storm)
Prior to 2155, the Romulans occupied the Haakonan homeworld for nearly two decades but were eventually forced to leave.
In 2155, the Romulans waged a war against the Haakonans. Fortunately, the Haakonans were supplied with weapons by the Vulcans, allowing the Haakonans to fight back against the Romulans effectively. (ENT novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing)
Unfortunately, on Thursday, December 29 in 2157, the Romulans won the war with the Haakonans by unleashing the Loque'eque mutagenic virus upon them, effectively eliminating the entire species. This gave the Romulans the chance to focus their resources on their war with Earth. (ENT - The Romulan War novel: To Brave the Storm)
- It is possible that some of the species managed to escape before the deployment of the virus, but as it came on suddenly, it would seem that most were affected.