Henry Archer was one of the pioneers of the Warp 5 engine, and worked extensively with Zefram Cochrane. He was also the father of noted United Earth Starfleet captain and Federation President, Jonathan Archer.
In 2118, Henry Archer finished his doctorate dissertation at State University of New York at Albany. It was titled, "Design and Development Necessities of a Warp Five Engine." (ST reference: Federation: The First 150 Years)
Through the hard work and petitioning of Archer and Cochrane, the Warp 5 Complex was opened on Earth in 2119, just a few weeks before Cochrane's disappearance. (ENT novelization: Broken Bow)
Henry had Clarke's Syndrome. He experienced hallucinations and died when Jonathan was 12 years old (in approximately 2124).
In 2154, Henry's son would wonder if genetic engineering would have saved his father's life. (ENT episode: "Cold Station 12")
His paternal grandfather, Nathan Archer, was a captain in the United Nations Peace Directorate who served in North Africa during the Eugenics Wars. (SNW short story: "The Rules of War")