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The Roman Empire was an early peak of Western Human civilization, with a complex representative government ruling several countries across the entire continent of Europe, as well as parts of some others.
A parallel development of Humans achieved an Empire quite similar to this on planet 892 IV, but one that sustained itself as the ruling power of their world until their civilization's equivalent of the 20th century. (TOS episode & novelization: Bread and Circuses)
The Renaissance was a time of great gains in the intellectuality of Human societies, and a general improvement of the average Western Human's quality of life, for the first time since the fall of the Roman Empire to a level equal or superior as that of one living at height of the Empire.
Great gains in science and art were made by thinkers such as Leonardo da Vinci. This time period would be remembered and studied by Kathryn Janeway, in experience through the holoprogram of da Vinci. By the 23rd century, the immortal Flint would still remember this time of his life. (VOY episodes: "Scorpion", "The Raven", "Scientific Method"; TOS episode & novelization: Requiem for Methuselah)
The Ekosians of Ekos would later be brainwashed by a version of the Nazi propaganda machine. A Federation historian, the Human John Gill, decided to test whether a totalitarian state such as the Nazis created would be viable existing without the basic concepts of hate that Earth Nazis based their culture on. Gill's experiment ended in disaster, as his deputy fuhrer, Melakon, twisted the cause of the purposful Ekosians into a hatred of their nearest planetary neighbors, the Zeons. (TOS episode & novelization: Patterns of Force)