In the 22nd century, it was the site of a military offensive involving the MACOs, including Hideaki Chang. (ENT novel: Last Full Measure) By 2155, it was the furthest colony that the United Earth government had established within the Sol system. (ENT novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing)
Later by the 24th century, it was the location of Starfleet's Holographic Image and Programming Center, where Dr. Lewis Zimmerman did his work developing the Emergency Medical Hologram program. (VOY episode: "The Cloud")
In 2372, the USS Samson was scheduled to arrive at Jupiter Station for debriefing following the testing on it's enhanced weapon and targeting systems during war games against the USS Enterprise-E. Unfortunately, the Samson was destroyed before leaving the Pantera Nebula. (TNG eBook: A Sea of Troubles) The station had a café whose manager resigned in 2373. While on Deep Space 9 in that year, Dr. Zimmerman asked Leeta if she would like to take the position. (DS9 episode: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume?")
During the Totality Crisis in 2381, a number of Starfleet vessels suffered from warp core breaches. The matter was kept under a veil of secrecy and led to the Enterprise-E being sent a message from Starfleet Command to drop out of warp at Kuiper 575 in order for both the Enterprise-E and the USS Titan to be escorted to Jupiter Station. At the time on Stardate 58562.5, multiple Starfleet ships suffered from catastrophic warp core failiures leading to the deaths of thousands - some due to the actual destruction whilst others were lost when the major research platforms suffered from the loss of their shields which led to Jupiter's deadly radiation killing them. (TOS novel: Captain's Glory)
- It is unclear whether the 22nd century station existed into the 24th century, or whether a later replacement facility shared the same designation.