Mango is a type of plant fruit that grows from a variety of tree native to the Indian subcontinent on the planet Earth. Many Earth animal lifeforms are known to consider mango edible as food, including the Human civilization.
The Chrysalis Base had, in its living areas, genetically engineered mango varieties that were available all year round in the project's controlled climate. As such, Doctor Sarina Kaur enjoyed fresh mango chutney while working on Chrysalis Project, notably during her meeting with Roberta Lincoln in 1974. (TOS - The Eugenics Wars novels: The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 1, The Rise and Fall of Khan Noonien Singh, Volume 2)
Mango was known to be consumed as a foodstuff available in the Federation in the 23rd century. Mars Foods Incorporated advertised themselves as a supplier of mango in Spacelanes, a periodical publication in the late 23rd century. They also had a sauce product, mangonaisse, which was derived from mango. (FASA RPG module: Spacelanes: The Magazine of Interstellar Trade)
The Talaxian traveler Neelix added mango to his culinary repertoire after joining the crew of starship Voyager, and used it as a substitution in his recipe for sweet iced neth. He also found use for mango when he was reformulating Laurellian rice pudding to omit Delta Quadrant ingredients that caused allergic reactions in Vulcans, such as Finorian flutter fly. Finally, a simple sliced mango was one of many combinations of tea sandwiches requested of Neelix by Captain Kathryn Janeway. (ST reference: Star Trek Cookbook)