Neo-Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement on Earth, founded by Liam Dieghan in the late 21st or early 22nd century. Arising in the aftermath of World War III, Neo-Transcendentalism advocated a return to a simpler lifestyle, with minimal technology and an emphasis on nature.
A group of Neo-Transcendentalists left Earth in 2123 aboard the SS Mariposa, and eventually founded the colony on Bringloid V. (TNG episode: "Up the Long Ladder")
Following the relocation of the Bringloidi to the planet Mariposa in 2365, a new sect of Neo-Transcendentalists was formed, called Dieghanists. (SCE eBook: Out of the Cocoon)