As the name implies, New Sahara was a desert world with a hot, dry climate and little surface water outside of two oceans located near the polar regions. The planet would have been uninhabited if it were not for a compound found within its vast quantities of sand. Known as Hard Sand, the compound could be used to create one of the strongest high-temperature ceramics in the galaxy. Hard Sand would even been used in the construction of starship engines.
As the planet had few, if any other resources, most of its supplies had to be imported, including water from neighboring New Siberia.
The government of the two planets, New Sahara and New Siberia, were shared. The Grandmaster, the leader of the government, was elected to a five year term, along with 60 Grand Senators (30 from each of the two planets).
Although not stated, the name of the planet implies that it was settled by Humans, or mostly Human colonists from Earth.