The New Zealand Penal Settlement was a Federation minimum-security penal colony located in New Zealand on Earth. Despite being minimum-security, the settlement held many Maquis and other traitors to the Federation.
Former Lieutenant Commander Benjamin Finney served time at the settlement after his 2267 attempt to frame Captain James T. Kirk for murder and destroy the USS Enterprise failed. Captain Kirk visited him in the year 2293, before his fateful voyage on the USS Enterprise-B. By then Finney was due to be released and planned to live with his daughter Jamie and her wife. (TOS novel: The Autobiography of James T. Kirk)
In 2369, Tom Paris began an 18-month sentence at the settlement, following his arrest for betraying Starfleet and joining the Maquis. His sentence was cut short when he agreed to help Captain Kathryn Janeway and the USS Voyager locate the Maquis vessel Val Jean. (VOY episode: "Caretaker")
Following his unsuccessful attempt of a military coup in 2372, Admiral James Leyton was sentenced to serve five years in the settlement for his actions. In 2374, Captain Benjamin Sisko visited his former captain in the prison. (DS9 novel: Hollow Men)
In 2373, Richard Bashir was sentenced to serve two years in the settlement after it was discovered that he had his son, Julian Bashir, genetically engineered. (DS9 episode: "Doctor Bashir, I Presume")