The Norolob were a sentient species native to the Carina Arm in the Beta Quadrant. After they replaced their empire with a more benevolent government, the Norolob turned from an expansionist power into one of the Federation's staunchest allies. (DTI eBook: The Collectors)
In the late 27th century, the Norolob acquired quantum slipstream drive. Their empire subsequently conquered half of the Federation's Carina Arm sectors. That conquest spawned a resistance movement. Eventually, the movement spread to the Norolob's empire, and their government was toppled.
The Norolob Republic was formed as a result and became one of the Federation's staunchest allies. They were vital intermediaries in building a lasting peace between the Federation and the Voth. (DTI eBook: The Collectors)
In an alternate timeline where there was no Temporal Defense Grid, the Federation's temporal law-enforcement became more aggressive. The 31st century Temporal Intervention Agency prevented the Norolob's acquisition of slipstream drive. The Norolob Republic did not come about.
On Day 266, 3051, Federation Temporal Agency operative Jena Noi and TIA director Timot Danlen discussed the policy differences between their respective temporal organizations with regards to the TIA's Norolob operation. (DTI eBook: The Collectors)