The Oromente Qualfn rose in opposition to the actions of dictator Vintlel Sotars the Harsh in the late 23rd century, with Nashi Dolun the Young as its unofficial leader. Nashi sought allies from all sides, and gained strong Klingon support (likely because Vintlel was a pro-Federation ruler), including a supply of weapons.
Clashes between government forces and the insurgents grew bloodier and more frequent into the late 23rd century, and the world was considered a bomb ready to go off. The Federation grew worried, but could do nothing since Qualf was an Orion world just inside the Orion Neutrality Area. (FASA RPG - The Orions module: Book of Common Knowledge)