The Planetarist movement was a political movement that formed in response to the founding of the United Federation of Planets.
Most Planetarists felt that the United Federation of Planets was formed too quickly after the Earth-Romulan War and had serious concerns about the preservation of their cultures and individual liberties in the new nation. Unfortunately the movement was soon co-opted by criminal elements opposed to the Federation as the spread of the new nation's laws would put a damper on their activities.
In 2164 Federation Councillor Anlenthoris ch'Vhendreni ran for the office of Federation President as a member of the Planetarist movement. ch'Vhendreni held a few of their positions, but actually did not agree with a large number of their stances. He feigned agreement with these positions in the hopes that the more extreme members of the movement would back him - enabling him to win election.
ch'Vhendreni traveled to Babel in 2164 while negotiations were underway between the Federation and the Rigellian Trade Commission. While there the Mazarite run Zankor Syndicate staged an assassination attempt on ch'Vhendreni in the hopes that Admiral Jonathan Archer would be blamed for the attempt. T'Rama of Vulcan investigated the situation further and found that Archer was being framed for the attempt. It was also soon discovered that the members of ch'Vhendreni's campaign team responsible for convincing him to divert to Babel and sabotaging his ship were on the payroll of the Zankor Syndicate.
Following the revelation that the assassination attempt was staged along with the fact that criminal elements were using him to weaken the Federation, ch'Vhendreni withdrew from the race and endorsed Haroun al-Rashid of Earth. al-Rashid subsequently won election to office later that year. Despite the withdrawal of ch'Vhendreni the movement continued to exert influence during the early years of the new nation, with several members of the Federation council holding Planetarist beliefs. (ENT - Rise of the Federation novel: Tower of Babel)