Polio (also known as Poliomyelitis) is a disease that was started on Earth in the 19th century and was cured by polio vaccines in the 1950s.
In 2364, Dr. Beverly Crusher cited polio as one of the diseases which had been believed to be incurable. (TNG - Double Helix novel: Infection)
In 2378, Dr. Crusher compared the ease of curing the Canopus plague to polio. (TNG novel: A Time to Harvest)