The Pueblo Revolt was an uprising against the Spanish of a dozen pueblos of the Pueblo Indians in what would eventually become New Mexico in August of 1680. The coordinated attacks resulted in the deaths of 400 Spaniards along with 21 members of the clergy, and a number of Native Americans.
Some time later the Spanish engaged in brutal reprisals against the Pueblo Indians responsible for the revolt. One of the Spanish soldiers who participated was Javier Maribona-Picard, a distant ancestor of 24th century Starfleet Captain Jean-Luc Picard. Picard's taking part in the reprisals resulted in his family incurring a stain of blood, which would last for over 23 generations until Jean-Luc Picard worked out a compromise allowing a colony of Native Americans to remain on their world rather than give it up to the Cardassians. (TNG episode: "Journey's End")