The Federation Starfleet is divided into three departments based upon one's technical position within Starfleet.
The departments are command, operations, and sciences. They are each denoted by Starfleet uniform piping, which are color coded. In the latter half of the 24th century, Command department wears red piping; Operations department wears gold piping; and Sciences department wears light-blue piping.
The command department is the corps of officers within Starfleet who specialize in command and control functions on starbases, aboard starships, and at Starfleet Command. Members of the command department are trained in leadership and have tactical training allowing them to decisively take action in organizing and mobilizing Starfleet crews to perform missions. Command officers include the admiralty, captains, executive officers, adjutants, pilots and flight controller (helmsman). Command department personnel also fill posts as tactical officers and sometimes in ordnance.
The operations department is the corps of officers and crewmen within Starfleet who specialize in services and military functions on starbases, aboard starships, and at Starfleet Command. Members of the operations department may specialize in a ship or base service, staff officers, administration, or military operations. Operations officers include engineers, security and tactical, and some service specializations such as communications. Operations department personnel also fill administrative posts as yeomen, personnel officers and portmasters. By the 24th century, this department had new postings established on ships, such as operations managers (also known as "Chiefs of Operations").
The sciences department is the corps of officers within Starfleet who specialize in both scientific and medical research and control functions on starbases, aboard starships, and at Starfleet Command. Members of the sciences department may specialize in sensors, research, theoretical and physical laboratory work, biological studies, and also as technicians, medics, and surgeons.