The planet was capable of sustaining Human life, although it is not known what planetary class to which Tarod IX belonged. Being the ninth planet in the system, and thus some distance from its main star, it had a frigid climate, and was covered in canyons and escarpments. It was also said to have had intense winds blowing across its surface.
During the mid 2150s, the planet was the site of Human settlement known simply as the Tarod IX outpost. As the planet was located in Sector 30, the settlement was a considerable distance from Earth and other colonies such as Deneva and Vega colony. Moreover, the outpost was also close to Romulan territory. In fact, in 2155, the colony came under attack from the Romulans who vaporized many of its inhabitants. Those who survived were rescued by the Enterprise (NX-01) and had to be treated for radiation burns. (ENT novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing, ST reference: Star Charts)
In 2364, the outpost was destroyed by a Borg vessel which had destroyed many outposts along the Romulan Neutral Zone. The USS Enterprise-D arrived to investigate the attack shortly after, but the attacker wasn't revealed until the Enterprise's encounter with the Borg in 2365. (TNG episodes: "The Neutral Zone", "Q Who?"; Star Trek CCG: Premiere)