The meta-genome was created unknown thousands of years ago by the race known as the Shedai when they went into a state of extended hibernation. The Shedai expected to use the information contained in the meta-genome to rebuild their ancient civilization upon their awakening.
The incredibly complex DNA, originally found in a simple mold, contained millions of chromosomes, only a small number of which were needed for a mold, or any known life-form. The rest of the information contained in the DNA was a huge amount of raw technological data, the full extent of which is currently unknown. What is known is that information gained from the Taurus meta-genome led to the invention of the Project Genesis technology, and medical breakthroughs such as dermal regenerators.
Upon realizing the full potential of the meta-genome, Starfleet fast-tracked the construction of the Vanguard station in the Taurus Reach in order to study this new discovery more closely.
In the 24th century information on the genome had become so highly classified that it could only be viewed by the President of the United Federation of Planets and Commander-in-Chief of the Federation Starfleet together. In 2381 the Tholian Assembly began secretly transmitting information on the genome to the Andorians in an effort to cure their reproductive issues. In 2382, the Tholians would reveal their involvement and that the Federation had been hiding the treatment from the Andorian people. This would later result in the Andorian's deciding to terminate their membership in the Federation. (ST - Typhon Pact novel: Paths of Disharmony)
By 2385 the Andorian species was reaching the point of no return. Andorian scientists had found that if the reproductive crisis was not resolved by the end of the following year they would become extinct within 200 years. Unwilling to allow this to happen, Starfleet Doctor Julian Bashir stole data on the meta-genome and with the help of several medical experts used the data to create a cure for the Andorians, which he was able to successfully deliver to Andoria. (ST - The Fall novel: A Ceremony of Losses)