Terra Prime was a xenophobic organization based on Luna in the 22nd century, that advocated the removal of all extraterrestrials from Earth and the Sol system in general. Before the Xindi attack in 2153 the movement had been losing supporters, but after the attack they began growing again; eventually reaching a point where they worried Prime Minister Nathan Samuels, a former member himself.
In 2155, they were led by John Frederick Paxton, who would lead Terra Prime on a daring raid in which they took over Mars' Verteron Array and used it to threaten Earth by saying that if all non-Humans didn't leave the system immediately they would fire on Starfleet Command. Fortunately, the crew of the Enterprise was able to defeat Terra Prime and redirect the verteron beam into the Pacific Ocean. (ENT episodes: "Demons", "Terra Prime")
In one alternate universe, Terra Prime was successful in it's attack on Starfleet Command, leading to a period of isolationism on Earth that lasted into the mid-23rd century, where their symbol would continue to be a symbol of anti-alien feelings. (Star Trek: Myriad Universes novel: A Less Perfect Union)