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United Earth is one of the founding Member States of the United Federation of Planets (ENT episodes: "Zero Hour", "These Are the Voyages...") and the planetary state for Earth. (ENT episodes: "Home", "The Forge")
United Earth is a parliamentary republic headed by a President (ST novel: Starfleet: Year One) as head of state, and a Prime Minister who is the head of government. (TNG - Tales of the Dominion War short story: "Eleven Hours Out") Members of the United Earth Cabinet receive the title of "Minister." (ENT episodes: "Demons", "Terra Prime", ENT novel: The Good That Men Do)
In 2155, the United Earth Prime Minister's office was located in San Francisco (ENT novel: Kobayashi Maru), as was the President's office in 2160. (ST novel: Starfleet: Year One) In the 2150s, the United Earth Parliament building was located in Paris. (ST - Section 31 novel: Control) The Prime Minister also maintained an office in Paris near the Place de la Concorde. (ENT - The Romulan War novel: Beneath the Raptor's Wing)
United Earth was responsible for the creation of the Coalition of Planets in 2155. (ENT episodes: "Demons", "Terra Prime") United Earth Prime Minister Nathan Samuels began the initial talks the previous year and presided over the signing of the Coalition Compact (ENT novel: The Good That Men Do) on the floor of the United Earth Parliament chamber. (ST - Section 31 novel: Control) United Earth Interior Minister Haroun al-Rashid, who would later go on to serve as the first Federation President, was also a significant representative in the Coalition talks. (ENT novel: The Good That Men Do)
After fighting a war with the Romulan Star Empire, United Earth was one of the five founding states of the Federation, with its citizens being amongst the primary architects of the Articles of the Federation. (ENT episodes: "Zero Hour", "These Are the Voyages...")
In the 2150s, United Earth's primary defense agency was the Military Assault Command Organization, with the United Earth Starfleet eventually being pressed into the role of planetary defense during the Xindi crisis. (ENT episode: "The Expanse") Internal security was the purview of the Earth Security Agency (ST - Section 31 novel: Control) Earth Surface Forces served as the domestic security organization for the planet through the early part of the 23rd century. (TOS novel: The Final Reflection)
- References to Earth security forces being 'federalized' by President Jaresh-Inyo in "Homefront" and "Paradise Lost" were originally intended to appear, but were cut for time.
High-Ranking United Earth OfficialsEdit
- Nathan Samuels - Prime Minister of United Earth, c. 2155
- Lydia Littlejohn - President of United Earth c. 2161
- Haroun al-Rashid - United Earth Interior Minister, c. 2155
- Thomas Vanderbilt - United Earth Defense Minister, c. 2155
- Terra Nova
- Centauri III
- Vega IX
- Alpha III
- Alpha V
- Calder II
- Tarod IX
- Caldos II
- Altair VI
- Berengaria VII
Stars and Star systemsEdit
Military organizations Edit
- United Earth Ground Force (Possibly also referred to as Earth Surface Forces)
- Earth Navy
- United Earth AeroNav Forces
- Military Assault Command Organization
- United Earth Starfleet
Note: Some of these defense organizations could have been integrated into Federation Starfleet and other Federation defense organizations (such as Federation Naval Patrol) after the founding of the United Federation of Planets.
In an alternate timeline where the attack on San Francisco by Terra Prime was successful, the Isolationist Party took control of Earth’s parliament, and in 2161, opted not to have the United Earth join in an alliance with the Vulcans, Andorians and Tellarites. Instead, United Earth remained an independent stellar power well into the mid 23rd century and significant rival of the Interstellar Coalition, the union eventually formed by the coming together of the Vulcans, Andorians, Tellarites and Denobulans. In this timeline, United Earth exploited ideological and philosophical differences on Halka and in the Rigel star system so as to continue its mining operations unopposed; the exploitation was the cause of much heated debate when Humans petitioned to join the Interstellar Coalition in 2264.
As of 2264, colony worlds of United Earth included Mars, Vega colony, Aldebaran Colony, Benecia Colony, Ivor Prime, Tarsus IV and Epsilon Canaris III. Secessionist or independence movements existed (or had existed) on worlds such as Mars and Epsilon Canaris III. However, they were quickly quelled by the government of United Earth.
In addition to colony worlds, United Earth, by the mid 23rd century, had spheres of influence which included Canopus Planet, Halka, Neural, Rigel IV, Rigel V, and Rigel VII. (TOS - Myriad Universes novel: A Less Perfect Union)
Canonical information on the dating of the establishment of United Earth is somewhat contradictory and unclear. The TNG episode: "Attached" mentions the year 2150 as the date all Earth's nation-states joined a global government, while the movie Star Trek: First Contact suggests a united world government was established in 2113. Adding to the confusion, Articles of the Federation states that "all the governments" on Earth signed the treaty in Paris "two hundred and fifty years ago" (i.e. 2130). Presumably, the establishment of a truly united Earth was an evolutionary process.