After it was discovered that the Romulans had the appearance of the Vulcan race, the Science Council made public their belief that they may have been the result of a seeding program by the Preservers. (FASA RPG module: The Romulan Way: Game Operations Manual)
In 2152, Subcommander T'Pol explained to Captain Jonathan Archer that her encounter with Ambassador V'Lar that her work at the Ka'Tann Conference inspired her to choose a life in the science service. This led to her joining the Vulcan Science Council and led to her posting on the Enterprise. (ENT episode: "Fallen Hero")
By the 2380's, they had developed the technology to create Red matter through the use of Decalithium. When the Hobus Crisis emerged which threatened to destroy Romulus, Ambassador Spock attempted to convince the Science Council to provide the Romulan Star Empire with red matter technology. However, they ultimately refused the ambassadors request. (TNG comic: "Countdown, Number Two")
- It is possible that the Science Council ran the Vulcan Science Academy.